9/11/12 World History Notes Chapter 2


Chapter 2 Lesson 1

  1. Studying Geography
  1. The Earth’s Surface- the earth is a sphere
    1. Globes show true distance and direction yet are impractical due to size and shape
    2. Maps are portable and easy to carry yet cannot show true size, shape distance and direction at the same time
  2. Finding Places on the Earth
    1. Equator: divides the northern & southern hemisphere
    2. Prime Meridian: divides the eastern and western hemisphere
    3. Latitude: lines that circle the earth parallel to the Equator
    4. Longitude: lines that circle the earth parallel to the Prime Meridian
  3. Maps
    1. Projections: way to show the Earth’s sphere on a flat sheet of paper distorting it as least as possible
    2. Kinds of Map Projections
      1. Goode’s Interrupted Equal-Area Projection-realistic representation of continents’ sizes and shapes
      2.  Projection-land, size and distance quite distorted
      3. Robinson Projection-true picture of land size and shape however the Poles are distorted
      4. Winkel Tripel Projection-Most closely resembles globe model
  1. Five themes and Six Elements of Geography
  1.         Five Themes of Geography
    2. PLACE
    5. REGIONS
  2. Six Essential Elements
    1. The world in Spatial terms: awareness
    2. Places and regions: ie., landforms, climate, animal and plant life, culture
    3. Physical systems: hurricanes, volcanoes, glaciers
    4. Human Systems-how people shape our world
    5. Enviornment & Society-how people use the environment and how their actions affect the environment
    6. The uses of geography: helps us understand the relationship btw people, places and things.
  3. Types of Maps:
    1. Physical Maps: show land and water features
    2. Political Maps: show the names and borders of countries
    3. Special Purpose Maps show patterns (climate, population) or historical information
  4. Reading Maps:
    1. Key/Legend: symbols
    2. Scale: measuring line that tells you distance
    3. Cardinal Direction: compass (n, s, e or w)
  1. Population & Culture-Historians are interested in how population, culture, movement, ideas and goods change over time
  1. Population Shifts: how fast a population grows or shrinks over time
    1. Choropleth: uses color to show population density (how many people live in a sq. mile)
    2. Migration-population changes by location.  People settling in different places
  2. Culture and Change:
    1. Culture: set of beliefs, behaviors and traits shared by the members of a group.
    2. Cultural Diffusion- caused by migration, exploration, or trade.  Two cultures combine each sharing a part of their culture with the other.


Chapter 2- Lesson 2

  1. Economics- is important because our society buys and sells goods and services every day.
  1. People need RESOURCES to make goods and offer services:
    1. land,
    2. labor,
    3. capital
    4. entrepreneurship
    5. technology
  2. Supply & Demand
    1. Supply: the amount of goods and services a producer wants to sell
    2. Demand: the amount of something that a consumer wants to buy
    3. Scarcity: lack of a resource
    4. Opportunity cost: what is given up (money or time) in order to buy or make something
  1. Managing and Measuring Economics
  1. Economic Systems:
    1. Traditional economy-based on custom
    2. Command economy-government decides what  goods will be made and who will receive them
    3. Market economy- individual decides about what to make, sell or buy in an open market
  2. Measuring Economics-
    1. Boom-economy grows quickly
    2. Recession-economy grows slowly or shrinks
    3. Inflation-a rise in the prices or the supply of money
  3. Trade in History
    1. Export
    2. Import
    3. Barter
    4. Globalization

Lesson 3-Practicing Citizenship

  1. Principles of Government
    1. Representative government: citizens vote for officials
    2. Federal system: highest authority
    3. Separation of Powers
    4. Checks and Balances
      1. Legislative Branch
      2. Judicial Branch
      3. Executive Branch
  2. Citizenship-
    1. Rights of a US citizen: seek life liberty and happiness, vote, peaceful gatherings, religion, petition, fair trial (jury)
    2. Responsibilities: obey all laws, serve on jury, stay informed on issues, respect the rights and views of others
    3. Global Citizen: learning about different issues that affect the world as a whole.